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Reply to Sophia :

The five types of kidney stones are calcium oxalate stones, calcium phosphate stones, struvite stones, uric acid stones, and cystine stones. The calcium oxalate stone is the most common type of kidney stone that occurs when the urine contains low levels of citrate and high levels of calcium and oxalate or uric acid. This is connected to a diet of foods with high levels of oxalate including beets, black tea, chocolate nuts, potatoes, and spinach. Treatment is dietary changes.

Calcium phosphate stones are caused by abnormalities in the urinary system and correlate to calcium oxalate stones. Struvite stones are caused by UTIs and can cause severe UTIs and loss of kidney function. Uric acid stones are caused by dehydration and high animal protein diets. Other risk factors are having gout and going through chemotherapy. Cystine stones are caused by the genetic disorder cystinuria that causes high levels of cystine in urine. Treating kidney stones includes pain management, staying hydrated. Urologists can dissipate kidney stones into smaller pieces through shock wave lithotripsy, cystoscopy and ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Medication can also be prescribed. Potassium citrate and diuretics for calcium stones to raise citrate and pH levels of urine. Allopurinol and potassium citrate for uric acid stones to treat high levels of uric acid in the body. Antibiotics like acetohydroxamic acid to fight bacteria and prevent infection. And mercaptopropionyl glycine for cystine stones to make cystine more soluble for patients. 

reply to zainab:

There are several different causes of kidney stones one of which is supersaturation of one or more salts, where the concentration of salt is greater than the concentration of liquid present. Another cause is precipitation of a salt from the liquid to solid state where salts form crystals that are retained and grow into stones. Kidney stones can also grow because of crystallization or by the presence or absence of stone inhibitors. Other common causes of kidney stones include low urine volume, diet, bowel conditions, and other medical conditions. Often with renal calculi the main goals of treatment include treating the pain that might be felt which can sometimes requires narcotic medications. It is also important to have a high fluid intake to avoid stone-forming substances as well as adjust the pH of urine by potassium citrate or potassium acid phosphate. Monitoring dietary intake is also beneficial in avoiding further increase in kidney stones. In extremely severe cases it may be necessary to remove stones with surgery.



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